Michael Porter Value Chain Analysis Model: Examples & Applying Steps

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Porter's Value Chain Model
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In strategic management, few frameworks have garnered as much attention and acclaim as Michael Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model and Porter’s Generic Strategies. Porter’s Value Chain model, introduced by Porter in his seminal work in 1985, has become a cornerstone for businesses aiming to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. 

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In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model, explore its components, provide examples, and outline practical steps for its application.

What is Porter’s Value Chain?

Porter introduced a versatile value chain model that businesses can employ to analyze their entire range of activities and comprehend their interconnections. The manner in which these activities are executed within the value chain directly impacts costs and influences profitability. It is a strategic management framework designed to scrutinize a company’s operations and uncover its competitive edge. It encompasses both primary activities, which are directly linked to production and delivery, and support activities that facilitate the execution of primary functions.

Understanding and optimizing the value chain are paramount for businesses aiming to gain a competitive edge. Michael Porter’s influential 1985 book introduced the concept of the value chain, comprising five primary activities that businesses undertake to create value for their customers. These activities consist of sourcing inputs, transforming them through various processes, and delivering the final product or service to customers. However, to support the primary activities effectively, businesses must also engage in secondary activities such as technological development and administrative functions.

For example, leveraging technological advancements is crucial for developing manufacturing techniques and automating processes, thereby enhancing efficiency and productivity across the value chain. Moreover, administrative tasks, including maintaining products and managing refunds, are essential for ensuring smooth operations and customer satisfaction. Additionally, businesses need to focus on enhancing visibility and targeting appropriate customers—such as through advertising campaigns and white papers—to expand their customer base and stimulate demand. Furthermore, retaining employees who possess the necessary skills and expertise to fulfil primary activities is vital for sustaining operational excellence and driving innovation. Ultimately, by integrating these diverse elements into their operations, businesses can create a robust value chain that drives growth and profitability in today’s dynamic business environment.

At its core, the value chain concept emphasizes the notion that a company’s activities can be grouped into primary and support activities, each contributing to the overall value-creation process.

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Components of Porter’s Value Chain

Porter’s Value Chain consists of primary activities and secondary / support activities, all of which play crucial roles in creating value. The primary activities are directly involved in the production and delivery of a product or service, while support activities facilitate and enhance the efficiency of primary activities.

Primary Activities of the Value Chain

Primary activities of the value chain represent the core processes involved in the creation, production, and delivery of a product or service to the end customer. These activities are essential for adding value to the final product or service. The primary activities of the value chain include:

  1. Inbound Logistics: Involves the processes related to sourcing, receiving, and storing raw materials or inputs for production.
  2. Operations: Encompasses the activities involved in converting raw materials into finished products or services.
  3. Outbound Logistics: Focuses on the distribution and delivery of the final product to customers.
  4. Marketing and Sales: Includes activities aimed at promoting and selling the product or service to target customers.
  5. Customer Service: Involves providing support and assistance to customers post-purchase to ensure satisfaction and loyalty.

Understanding the primary activities of the value chain is paramount for businesses aiming to optimize their operations and bolster their competitive advantage. One such critical primary activity is research and development (R&D), which plays a pivotal role in innovation and product differentiation. By investing resources into R&D initiatives, companies can stay ahead of market trends, develop cutting-edge products or services, and capture new market segments. Additionally, effective accounting practices are essential for monitoring and managing costs throughout the value chain, ensuring optimal resource allocation and maximizing profit margins. Through diligent accounting procedures, businesses can identify areas of inefficiency, streamline processes, and ultimately enhance their bottom line. By integrating primary activities like R&D and accounting seamlessly into the value chain, organizations can create a robust framework for sustained growth and success.

Secondary/Support Activities of the Value Chain

Secondary or support activities of the value chain are critical functions that provide the necessary infrastructure and support for the primary activities to operate efficiently. These activities may not directly contribute to the production or delivery of the product or service but play a vital role in enabling the primary activities to function effectively. The secondary/support activities of the value chain include:

  1. Infrastructure: Refers to the systems, processes, and resources that support the entire value chain.
  2. Human Resource Management: Involves activities related to recruiting, hiring, training, and retaining employees.
  3. Technological Development: Encompasses efforts to improve products, processes, and systems through innovation and technology.
  4. Procurement: Involves the acquisition of inputs or resources needed for the value creation process.

Secondary activities within the value chain are essential for supporting and optimizing the primary activities, ultimately contributing to the overall value and competitive advantage of a business. These secondary activities consist of various functions that facilitate the smooth operation of primary processes. For instance, effective business management is crucial for overseeing all activities within the value chain, ensuring coordination and alignment with organizational objectives. Leveraging relationships with suppliers is vital for securing high-quality inputs at favorable terms, thereby enhancing the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of primary activities. Additionally, strategies to enhance visibility, such as advertising and targeted marketing campaigns, play a key role in attracting and retaining customers, thereby bolstering the competitiveness of the business.

Applying Porter’s Value Chain Model Steps

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis can be applied through a series of systematic steps to assess a company’s internal operations and identify areas for improvement. Here’s a step-by-step guide to applying the model effectively:

Porter's Value Chain Model
The UNITE Porter’s Value Chain Model
First described by Micheal E.Porter in his best-seller “Competitive Advantage”, Designed by: Digital Leadership AG

Step 1: Understand the Value Chain:

Before diving into analysis, it’s crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of the entire value chain. This involves mapping out all the activities involved in the creation, production, and delivery of your product or service.

Step 2: Identify Primary and Support Activities:

Once the value chain is understood, the next step is to identify both the primary and support activities within your organization. Primary activities directly contribute to the creation of value, while support activities enable the primary activities to function efficiently.

Step 3: Analyze Each Activity:

With the primary and support activities identified, analyze each activity to determine its contribution to value creation and competitive advantage. Assess how each activity impacts product quality, customer satisfaction, and overall profitability.

Step 4: Identify Areas of Competitive Advantage and Opportunities for Improvement:

During the analysis, identify areas where your company holds a competitive advantage compared to rivals. Simultaneously, pinpoint areas where improvements can be made to enhance efficiency, reduce costs, or differentiate your offering.

Step 5: Identify Cost Drivers:

Understanding the cost structure associated with each activity is crucial. Identify the key cost drivers for each activity and evaluate their impact on overall profitability. This analysis helps prioritize areas for cost reduction or optimization.

Step 6: Develop Strategies:

Based on the analysis conducted, develop strategies to capitalize on areas of competitive advantage and address areas for improvement. These strategies may involve process optimization, technology adoption, or strategic partnerships.

Step 7: Implement and Monitor:

Once strategies are developed, implement them across the organization and closely monitor their effectiveness. Regularly assess performance metrics to ensure that the implemented strategies are achieving the desired results. Adjust strategies as needed based on monitoring and feedback.

Porter’s Value Chain Example: Amazon

A real-life example of a company effectively implementing Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model is Amazon.com Inc. Let’s explore how Amazon utilizes the primary and support activities of the value chain to gain a competitive advantage:

Porter's Value Chain Example - Amazon
Porter’s Value Chain Example – Amazon

Primary Activities

  1. Inbound Logistics: Amazon optimizes inventory management and transportation to ensure the timely availability of products.
  2. Operations: Utilizing advanced technologies like robotics, Amazon streamlines its e-commerce platform and fulfilment centres for efficiency.
  3. Outbound Logistics: With an extensive distribution network, Amazon offers various delivery options for swift and accurate order fulfilment.
  4. Marketing and Sales: Amazon employs targeted marketing and its Prime membership program to drive customer engagement and loyalty.
  5. Service: Amazon prioritizes customer service, offering round-the-clock support and hassle-free returns for an enhanced customer experience.

Now, let’s examine how Amazon leverages the support activities of the value chain:

By effectively managing both the primary and support activities of the value chain, Amazon has established itself as a global leader in e-commerce, cloud computing, and digital services. The company’s relentless focus on innovation, operational excellence, and customer-centricity has enabled it to create significant value for customers, shareholders, and other stakeholders, solidifying its competitive position in the market.

  1. Procurement: Amazon negotiates favourable terms with suppliers and fosters strong supplier relationships for a reliable supply chain.
  2. Technology Development: Continuous innovation in AI and logistics optimization enables Amazon to enhance operational efficiency and customer experience.
  3. Human Resource Management: Amazon invests in talent acquisition and development, offering competitive compensation and a diverse work environment.
  4. Firm Infrastructure: Amazon’s leadership ensures strategic direction, financial management, and regulatory compliance for sustained growth and success.

Porter’s Value Chain Example: Starbucks

Starbucks Corporation provides an exemplary illustration of Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model in action. Let’s explore how Starbucks leverages its primary and support activities to deliver value to customers and maintain its competitive edge:

Porter's Value Chain Example - STARBUCKS
Porter’s Value Chain Model Example – STARBUCKS

Primary Activities:

  1. Operations: Starbucks has established state-of-the-art roasting facilities where coffee beans are expertly roasted to perfection. The company’s baristas are trained extensively to uphold the highest standards in brewing and beverage preparation, ensuring that every cup of coffee meets customers’ expectations
  2. Outbound Logistics: Starbucks operates a vast network of stores worldwide, strategically located to reach a broad customer base. The company’s efficient distribution system ensures that freshly roasted coffee beans and other supplies are delivered promptly to each store, maintaining product availability and freshness.
  3. Marketing and Sales: Starbucks is renowned for its innovative marketing strategies and iconic brand image. Through captivating advertising campaigns, social media engagement, and experiential marketing initiatives, Starbucks effectively communicates its brand values and fosters emotional connections with customers. The company’s loyalty program, mobile app, and seasonal promotions further drive customer engagement and sales.
  4. Service: Starbucks prioritizes customer satisfaction by delivering exceptional service at every touchpoint. Whether in-store or through digital channels, Starbucks ensures a personalized and seamless experience for customers. The company’s friendly and knowledgeable staff, coupled with its commitment to product quality and consistency, reinforces customer loyalty and advocacy.

Support Activities:

  1. Procurement: Starbucks meticulously selects suppliers and partners who share its commitment to ethical sourcing and sustainability. The company’s Coffee and Farmer Equity (C.A.F.E.) Practices promote fair labor practices, environmental stewardship, and community support across its supply chain.
  2. Technology Development: Starbucks embraces technological innovation to enhance operational efficiency and customer convenience. The company’s mobile ordering and payment systems, along with its digital loyalty program, leverage cutting-edge technology to streamline transactions and drive customer engagement.
  3. Human Resource Management: Starbucks invests in its employees through comprehensive training programs, competitive compensation packages, and opportunities for career advancement. The company’s inclusive and diverse workplace culture fosters employee satisfaction and retention, contributing to operational excellence and customer satisfaction.
  4. Firm Infrastructure: Starbucks maintains robust systems and processes to support its global operations. From supply chain management and inventory control to financial management and regulatory compliance, Starbucks’ infrastructure ensures operational resilience and organizational effectiveness.

By effectively managing both its primary and support activities, Starbucks has built a formidable competitive advantage in the coffee industry. The company’s relentless focus on quality, innovation, and customer experience continues to drive its success and position Starbucks as a leader in the global coffee market.

Porter’s Value Chain Example: Tesla

Porter's Value Chain Example - Tesla
Porter’s Value Chain Example – Tesla

A prime example of a company effectively implementing Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model is Tesla Inc., a renowned leader in the electric vehicle (EV) industry. Let’s explore how Tesla leverages the primary and support activities of the value chain to gain a competitive advantage:

Primary Activities:

  1. Inbound Logistics: Tesla optimizes its inbound logistics by strategically sourcing raw materials and components for its electric vehicles. By maintaining strong relationships with suppliers and leveraging advanced procurement strategies, Tesla ensures a steady supply of high-quality inputs for its manufacturing process.
  2. Operations: Tesla’s manufacturing operations are characterized by innovative production processes and cutting-edge technology. The company’s vertically integrated manufacturing facilities enable it to control the entire production process, from battery production to vehicle assembly, resulting in greater efficiency and quality control.
  3. Outbound Logistics: Tesla’s outbound logistics focus on delivering vehicles to customers in a timely and cost-effective manner. The company utilizes a combination of direct sales, online ordering, and efficient distribution channels to streamline the delivery process and minimize lead times.
  4. Marketing and Sales: Tesla employs a unique marketing and sales strategy that emphasizes brand awareness, product differentiation, and customer engagement. Through innovative marketing campaigns, word-of-mouth referrals, and a strong online presence, Tesla has successfully built a loyal customer base and achieved widespread recognition for its electric vehicles.
  5. Service: Tesla prioritizes customer service and support to enhance the ownership experience for its customers. The company offers comprehensive warranty coverage, proactive software updates, and responsive customer support to address any issues or concerns promptly.

Support Activities:

  1. Procurement: Tesla’s procurement strategy focuses on securing the best possible terms and pricing from suppliers while maintaining high standards of quality and sustainability. By negotiating long-term contracts and fostering collaborative relationships with suppliers, Tesla minimizes procurement costs and ensures a reliable supply chain.
  2. Technology Development: Tesla is at the forefront of technological innovation in the automotive industry, continually investing in research and development to enhance its product offerings. The company’s focus on developing advanced battery technology, autonomous driving systems, and energy storage solutions sets it apart from competitors and drives long-term value creation.
  3. Human Resource Management: Tesla places a strong emphasis on talent acquisition, development, and retention to support its ambitious growth objectives. The company attracts top engineering and design talent from around the world and offers competitive compensation packages and career advancement opportunities to its employees.
  4. Firm Infrastructure: Tesla’s firm infrastructure encompasses its organizational structure, corporate governance, and strategic decision-making processes. The company’s dynamic leadership team, led by CEO Elon Musk, sets the strategic direction and drives innovation across all aspects of the business.

By effectively managing both the primary and support activities of the value chain, Tesla has established itself as a leader in the electric vehicle industry and a pioneer in sustainable transportation. The company’s relentless focus on innovation, operational excellence, and customer-centricity has enabled it to create significant value for customers, shareholders, and other stakeholders, solidifying its competitive position in the market.

Importance of Implementing Porter’s Value Chain Model

Implementing Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model offers several key benefits for businesses:

  1. Competitive Advantage: By systematically analyzing internal operations, companies can identify sources of competitive advantage and differentiate themselves in the market.
  2. Cost Efficiency: Value chain analysis helps companies identify inefficiencies and streamline processes, leading to cost savings and improved profitability.
  3. Strategic Alignment: The model helps align internal activities with overall business strategy, ensuring that resources are allocated effectively to support organizational goals.
  4. Continuous Improvement: Value chain analysis is an iterative process that encourages ongoing evaluation and optimization of internal operations to adapt to changing market conditions.

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis in Strategic Management

In strategic management, Porter’s Value Chain Analysis is a valuable tool for formulating and implementing business strategies. By understanding how each activity within the value chain contributes to overall value creation, companies can make informed decisions about resource allocation, product development, and market positioning.

Strategies for Value Chain Optimization

To optimize the value chain and gain a competitive advantage, businesses can employ several strategies:

  1. Cost Leadership: Focus on reducing costs at each stage of the value chain to offer products or services at lower prices than competitors.
  2. Differentiation: Emphasize unique features or qualities in products or services to distinguish them from competitors and create perceived value.
  3. Vertical Integration: Control multiple stages of the value chain, from raw material acquisition to distribution, to streamline operations and capture more value.
  4. Outsourcing: Partner with external vendors or suppliers for non-core activities to reduce costs and focus on core competencies.
  5. Technology Adoption: Invest in technology and innovation to improve efficiency, enhance product quality, and create new value propositions.

Integration of Porter’s Value Chain Model with Other Strategic Tools

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis can be enhanced and complemented by integrating it with other strategic tools and frameworks. Below are several ways to integrate Porter’s Value Chain Model with other strategic tools:

1. Synergies with SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analaysis Template
The UNITE SWOT Framework
First Published in 1965 by 3x colleagues from the Stanford Research Institue. Designed by: Digital Leadership AG

Porter’s Value Chain Model provides insights into internal operations and value creation processes, while SWOT Analysis focuses on identifying internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as external opportunities and threats. By integrating the two frameworks, businesses can gain a comprehensive understanding of both internal capabilities and external market dynamics. For example, identifying a strength in a primary activity of the value chain can be leveraged to exploit an external opportunity identified in the SWOT analysis.

2. Incorporating PESTLE Analysis

PESTLE Analysis - PESTLE Analysis Framework
PESTLE ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK
Building on the 1967, FTPS’ publication of Francis Angular. Designed by: Digital Leadership AG

PESTLE Analysis examines external factors such as political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental influences on a business. Integrating PESTLE Analysis with Porter’s Value Chain Model allows companies to consider external factors that may impact their value chain activities. For instance, changes in regulations or advancements in technology may necessitate adjustments to certain value chain activities to remain competitive.

3. Complementarity with Balanced Scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard
THE BALANCED SCORECARD
Originally published by kaplan and Nortonin 1992.Designed by: Digital Leadership AG

The Balanced Scorecard framework provides a holistic view of a company’s performance across financial, customer, and internal processes, and learning and growth perspectives. Integrating the Balanced Scorecard with Porter’s Value Chain Model enables organizations to align value chain activities with strategic objectives and performance metrics. For example, if a strategic objective is to enhance customer satisfaction, value chain activities related to customer service and marketing can be prioritized and measured accordingly.

4. Integration with Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis assesses industry dynamics and competitive forces that influence a company’s profitability. By integrating Porter’s Value Chain Model with Five Forces Analysis, businesses can identify linkages between value chain activities and competitive forces. For instance, analyzing how supplier power impacts procurement activities within the value chain can inform strategic decisions regarding supplier relationships and cost management.

By integrating Porter’s Value Chain Model with other strategic tools, businesses can develop a comprehensive understanding of their internal capabilities, external environment, and competitive dynamics. This integrated approach enables companies to formulate informed strategies, optimize value chain operations, and gain a sustainable competitive advantage in the market.

In conclusion, Michael Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model offers a powerful framework for analyzing internal operations, identifying sources of competitive advantage, and optimizing value creation. By applying this model systematically and integrating it with other strategic tools, businesses can enhance their strategic decision-making processes and achieve sustainable success in today’s competitive landscape. At Digital Leadership, we specialize in helping organizations navigate the complexities of strategic management and value creation. Our comprehensive innovation consulting services and innovative solutions empower businesses to unlock their full potential and achieve sustainable success. Contact us today to learn more about how we can support your organization’s growth journey.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1- What is the difference between value chain and supply chain?

Essentially, although both the supply chain and value chain are vital aspects of business operations, they serve unique functions. The supply chain concentrates on the logistics and procedures related to delivering a product or service from its origin to the final consumer, covering aspects such as sourcing, production, and distribution. Conversely, the value chain focuses on the actions a business performs to generate value for its customers, which include research and development, marketing, and customer service. Grasping the distinction between these concepts is essential for businesses to efficiently oversee their operations and bolster their competitive edge in the market.

2. How can businesses apply Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model?

Businesses can apply Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model by following a series of systematic steps, including understanding the value chain, identifying primary and support activities, analyzing each activity, identifying areas of competitive advantage and opportunities for improvement, identifying cost drivers, developing strategies, and implementing and monitoring changes.

3. How does Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model help businesses?

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Model helps businesses identify areas where they can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance value creation. By understanding how each activity within the value chain contributes to overall value creation, businesses can make informed decisions about resource allocation, product development, and market positioning, ultimately leading to competitive advantage and increased profitability.


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